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Revue de presse – 17 janvier 2017

janvier 17, 2017 Laisser un commentaire

Ecology

Humans Caused a Major Shift in Earth’s Ecosystems 6,000 Years Ago | Science |

Humans Caused a Major Shift in Earth’s Ecosystems 6,000 Years Ago

We upended a pattern held for 300 million years, and that may mean we are causing a new phase in global evolution

Il semble que cela fasse plus de 6000 ans que l’homme ait un impact majeur sur le climat…

Economy

Why you should always buy the men’s version of almost anything – The Washington Post

Radio Flyer sells a red scooter for boys and a pink scooter for girls. Both feature plastic handlebars, three wheels and a foot brake. Both weigh about five pounds.

The only significant difference is the price, a new report reveals. Target listed one for $24.99 and the other for $49.99.

Pourquoi il est plus intéressant d’acheter la version masculine des produits que vous achetez,( dans le sens où ils sont moins chers, bien entendu 🙂 parce que sinon, c’est parfois exactement le même produit…

Strategies that will change the way you negotiate | Penelope Trunk Careers

1. Pick the best person to negotiate with.

2. Find a weak link in an unfair system.

3. Pay attention to values (theirs, not yours).

4. Know when to stop.

5. Embrace conflict as an essential path to growth.

J’adore Penelope Trunk, j’ai toujours trouvé ses billets utiles et issus d’une véritale expérience personnelle, même s’ils sont souvent difficiles à appliquer 🙂

Medicine

Smithsonian Could Ketamine Be Used to Vaccinate for Depression or PTSD?

The need for progress could hardly be more urgent: Of all illnesses, neuropsychiatric diseases are estimated to put the heaviest burden on society. Nearly half of Americans are affected by some sort of mental disorder at some point in life. Suicides, 90 percent of them among the mentally ill, take 40,000 Americans every year—more than murder or car crashes. Since 2005, the suicide rate among U.S. war veterans has nearly doubled; in the first half of 2012, more service members died by suicide than in combat. Few medical failures are more flagrant than psychiatry’s impotence to save these people.

La ketamine, actuellement utilisée comme drogue et comme anesthésiant, pourrait être utilisée comme vaccin contre la dépression ou le stress post-traumatique. Considérer les maladies mentales comme des maladies et non comme des déséquilibres pourrait changer totalement la prise en charge.

Why Autism in Women Is Misunderstood – The Atlantic

Malheureusement Ghostery bloque ce site. J’ai trouvé un sujet similaire ici:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/emilywillingham/2015/09/04/autistic-girls-are-undiagnosed-underserved-and-misunderstood/#2d10ec911fcb

L’idée est que l’autisme est largement sous-estimé chez les filles à cause de mécanismes de compensations qui développent leur aptitude à communiquer.

Brazil declares emergency after 2,400 babies are born with brain damage, possibly due to mosquito-borne virus – The Washington Post

Brazilian health authorities are sounding the alarm about a mosquito-borne virus that they believe may be the cause of thousands of infants being born with damaged brains.

Le Brézil déclare l’Etat d’Urgence après la naissance de 2 400 bébés avec des malformations cérébrales, sans doutes dues à un virus.

New genetic map of Britain shows successive waves of immigration going back 10,000 years | Home News | News | The Independent

Most soldiers serving under Rome who came to Britain were in any case more likely to be recruits from Gaul and Germany rather than being born in Italy, Sir Walter said.

“The people of the British Isles study gave us a wonderful opportunity to learn about the fine-scale genetic patterns of the UK population. A key part of our success was collecting DNA from a geographically diverse group of people who are representative of the location,” Sir Walter said.

De nouvelles cartes génétiques des Britanniques montrent qu’ils ont un génome commun à 40% avec les Français. De plus, cela montre une grande stabilité génétique à travers les âges.

How and Why I Taught My Toddler to Read

Can we teach our babies to read? Yes. Should we? Probably.

In this essay, I’m going to try to convince parents that it is possible, and may be beneficial, to teach their children to read even while they are babies or toddlers. I also have remarks for researchers throughout. First, I will explain how I taught my own little one, beginning at age 22 months, and introduce some of our methods. Then I will answer various general objections to the notion and practice of teaching tiny tots to read.

Pouvons-nous et devons-nous apprendre à lire à nos enfants avant la maternelle? Je suis personnellement très dubitative devant ce essai. Il me semble que cet âge-là doit être réservé à la découverte de l’espace et à la proprioception. Passer trop vite en deux dimensions est sans doute dommageable.

 

Social science

What Wittgenstein Learned from Teaching Elementary School

Every philosophy major has at some point had to answer the standard challenge: “What are you going to do, teach?”

On pose à chaque élève en philosophie cette question à un moment donné: « Et que feras-tu après, enseigner? » . Wittgenstein l’a fait et cela a eu une grande influence sur son œuvre…

My positive experience as a woman in tech | Lea Verou

Women speaking up about the sexism they have experienced in tech is great for raising awareness about the issues. However, when no positive stories get out, the overall picture painted is bleak, which could scare even more women away.

Lucky for me, I fell in love with programming a decade before I even heard there is a sexism problem in tech. Had I read about it before, I might have decided to go for some other profession. Who wants to be fighting an uphill battle all her life?

Pour une fois, un article qui exprime l’opinion que les femmes peuvent s’adapter dans le monde de la technologie, essentiellement masculin

30% of GOP voters nationally support bombing Agrabah, the country from Aladdin / Boing Boing

Don’t ever let the facts get in the way of a crowd-pleasing massacre.

From The Guardian:

More than 530 Republican primary voters were polled this week on their support for Republican candidates and foreign policy issues including banning Muslims from entering the US, Japanese internment camps from the second world war and bombing Agrabah, the kingdom from Disney’s animated classic, Aladdin.

30% des électeurs pro-républicains se prnoncent pour le bombardement d’Agrabah. Rappelons qu’Agrabah est une ville fictive du dessin animé « Alladin » de Disney…

This column will change your life: Helsinki Bus Station Theory | Life and style | The Guardian

800px-Helsinki_tram_map.png

By Kjet

En bref, la créativité réside dans la persistence à suivre une voie.

Against all odds, print books are on the rise again in the US – Quartz

As of early December 2015, Nielsen says, around 571 million paper books have been sold in the country—a modest but noticeable increase over the 559 million sold in 2014.

While it’d be a stretch to say that the physical book is thriving, it’s at least staying strong. The same can’t be said of the e-book, which is seeing a decline in popularity. A Pew Research Center study in October found that fewer Americans are buying and using e-reading devices like Kindles and Nooks than they did in past years.

Contrairement aux prévisions, de plus en plus de livres sont imprimés aux U.S.A.

Revue de presse – 16 janvier 2017

janvier 16, 2017 Laisser un commentaire

Economics or ist social science?

What Your Old Graphing Calculator Says About Technology – The Atlantic

Perhaps the real question to ask about graphing calculator technology is why the prices haven’t come down more. Memory, processing, and batteries are all a lot cheaper than they used to be but graphing calculator prices remain stubbornly high. The price of a low-end netbook is scarily close to the price of the high-end graphing calculator.

Et aussi pourquoi on a besoin d’une calculatrice qui fasse autre chose que les 4 opérations au niveau du bac…

Why can’t China make a good ballpoint pen? | Marketplace.org

It seemed like an innocuous question: “Why can’t China make a good ballpoint pen?” But it carried a much deeper meaning thanks to the man who asked it: Chinese Premier Li Keqiang. At a seminar in Beijing earlier this month, Li complained to those gathered that Chinese pens felt “rough” compared to pens made in Japan, Germany, and Switzerland. Li said China’s manufacturers at the lowest levels should focus on innovating their technology.

Le changement d’une fabrication de quantité à une fabrication de qualité en cours en Chine?

Social science

A simple explanation of Chinese characters — Medium

La meilleure explication que j’aie lu à propos de comment se construit un caractère chinois.

biang-svg

Ci-dessus le plus complexe d’entre-eux.

How Leaders Create and Use Networks

Un article de la Harvard Business Review sur la façon dont les « leaders » créent des réseaux.

What differentiates a leader from a manager, research tells us, is the ability to figure out where to go and to enlist the people and groups necessary to get there. Recruiting stakeholders, lining up allies and sympathizers, diagnosing the political landscape, and brokering conversations among unconnected parties are all part of a leader’s job. As they step up to the leadership transition, some managers accept their growing dependence on others and seek to transform it into mutual influence. Others dismiss such work as “political” and, as a result, undermine their ability to advance their goals.

The simple visual test that might predict political views / Boing Boing

Çà, c’est un peu simplet, je trouve. Si c’était si facile, les recruteurs arriveraient très facilement à trouver les bonnes personnes pour les bons postes.

The CIA’s Simple Sabotage Field Manual is a guide to “purposeful stupidity” / Boing Boing

Par exemple:

  • Bring up irrelevant issues as frequently as possible.
  • Haggle over precise wordings of communications, minutes, resolutions.
  • Refer back to matters decided upon at the last meeting and attempt to re-open the question of the advisability of that decision.

Excellent! Il semblerait que certains l’appliquent de nos jours sans s’en rendre vraiment compte…

Science

Gene expression patterns may underlie autism’s gender bias | Spectrum

Genes that are expressed at higher levels in men’s brains than in women’s also tend to be enriched in the brains of people with autism. Many of these genes are markers for immune cells called microglia, which have been implicated in autism.

Il semblerait que l’expression de certains gènes selon le sexe joue un rôle dans le nombre plus important de garçons autistes. Néanmoins, j’ai lu quelque part que les filles autistes étaient sous-diagnostiquées. Alors?

Why we’re going back to the Moon—with or without NASA | Ars Technica

Article long et détaillé sur les raisons pour lesquelles nous retournerons sur la Lune, avec ou sans la Nasa.

 

Paradox at the heart of mathematics makes physics problem unanswerable : Nature News & Comment

Kurt Gödel demonstrated that some mathematical statements are undecidable; Alan Turing connected that proof to unresolvable algorithms in computer science.

Les mathématiques dont nous disposons seraient incapables de résoudre certains problèmes de physique. Bah, on aura qu’à demander aux IA d’en créer de nouvelles 😉

Open AI – Big Data

My path to OpenAI

Greg Brockman explique comment il en est venu à travailler sur l’intelligence artificielle libre.

How Elon Musk and Y Combinator Plan to Stop Computers From Taking Over —Backchannel — Medium

They’re funding a new organization, OpenAI, to pursue the most advanced forms of artificial intelligence — and give the results to the public

Elon Musk et YCombinator s’associent pour développer l’intelligence artificielle libre.

Should AI Be Open? | Slate Star Codex

L’intelligence artificielle doit-elle être libre?

Surveillance

UK’s unaccountable crowdsourced blacklist to be crosslinked to facial recognition system / Boing Boing

Facewatch is a private-public system that shopkeepers and the police use to keep track of « persons of interest, » a list that includes anyone a shopkeeper doesn’t like and registers with the system.

Il semble qu’il suffise qu’un vendeur vous y ajoute pour figurer dans un fichier de personnes « louches » au Royaume-Uni…